Surface temperatures

The temperatures of surfaces in a room vary more than air temperature and have considerable effect. A window may be as low as 5°C and a radiator as high as 75-80°C.
Of course, these different temperatures produce an overall average but the effect on the body depends on their relative positions. If there is a radiator at 75°C close to you on one side and a window of the same area at 5°C equidistant on the other, the average temperature of the two surfaces would be 40°C. This average is known as the mean radiant temperature (MRT) and in practice would also be influenced by all the other surface temperatures in the room, not just the window and radiator.
If you move closer to the window the radiator has less effect and the MRT at your new position may go down to, say, 20°C. Radiation loss from the body depends on the MRT at the position occupied, while convection loss depends on the air temperature.
Comfort temperatures
Although people vary in their comfort requirement, most feel comfortable if the average of air temperature and MRT is in the range 19°C to 23°C. If, for example, all surfaces were at 18°C for simplicity, as in Fig. 1.3, the MRT anywhere in the room will be 18°C. With an air temperature of 24°C, the average is 21°C. If you are comfortable at this combination, you would also be comfortable with the air at 20°C and MRT at 22°C because the average would also be 21 °C.
This average, between MRT and air temperature, is used on the continent as a measure of comfort. It was devised by the Frenchman Missenard in the 1930s and is often shown in °M. The institutions concerned with heating in this country have recently adopted this as the scale for comfort but have called it the ‘dry resultant temperature’; I find it easier and more descriptive to call it the ‘comfort temperature’.
Inside comfort conditions depend on a combination of radiant and air temperatures, while those outside depend on the sun’s radiation and air temperature. This outside combination is called the sol-air temperature. It is used in air-conditioning calculations but the solar effect is so small and unpredictable in winter that it is ignored in heating calculations and only the outside air temperature is used.
These comfort concepts explain many little-understood and often-argued points. It is not necessary to know about these in order to plan a simple heating system and install it; you could pass straight on to for this, but I want to explain more than is usual so that you will
know your oil heating needs repair and the solutions better than most, and be better able to judge claims you might hear for this or that method, system or component.
If we want to be comfortable, we must achieve the comfort temperature we want. But we can- not measure comfort temperature; there are no thermometers readily available to record it. How can we find out what it is?
To make things simpler I have produced Table 1.2, which enables you to find approximate comfort temperature as a percentage of air temperature. Because the ceiling and floor effects tend to cancel out in any room in a normal house and to simplify things on the two-dimensional diagrams, I will ignore the small effect on MRT of these surfaces; the average U-value referred to is therefore that of all the walk, including windows.
In Fig. 1.4 various room conditions are illustrated; the comfort temperature is shown at nine different positions. In the first two I have also shown the MRT above each comfort temperature. The comfort temperature is the average of the MRT at each position, and the air temperature.
These comfort temperatures were worked out by computer using many factors but if you check the centre point in each room, you will find that the simplified table I have designed gives a close indication of the general comfort level represented by the comfort temperature at the centre of the room.
Where the comfort temperature is below 19°C the average person will feel too cold. To raise the comfort temperature it would be necessary to raise the air temperature, which uses more fuel.
You can see now why people are often fiddling with the room thermostat especially with a warm-air system. It is no good saying ‘the system has been properly designed; leave the thermo- stat alone’. It may have been properly designed but on a day when the outside surfaces are cold, you need a higher air temperature to compensate and give comfort.
If the next day is very sunny, the outside walls warm up, the surface temperatures rise, and you turn down the thermostat because now you feel too warm. As you turn the thermostat down you glance at the thermometer and see that it shows exactly the same air temperature as the day before. Now you suspect the thermometer is faulty as well as the heating.
To improve matters we need to have surfaces which do not fluctuate so much with changes of outside temperature and to be able to use the air thermostat to control our comfort level with a minimum of correction.
To expect a thermostat to keep you comfortable without adjustment is asking too much. It is designed only to keep the air at a particular temperature; it cannot sense radiant heat as we can. Also a warm-air system heats only the air; it has little effect on the surface temperatures which affect us. Even with radiators much of the heat emitted is by convection.
Until someone designs a human ‘comfort stat’ the best thing is to create an environment where an acceptable comfort temperature can be achieved without a much higher air temperature so that the thermostat reading is more closely related to the comfort temperature.
You can now see that the type of heating you have, the position of radiators, double glazing and insulation all have an effect on surface temperatures and therefore on comfort levels.

Choosing Swimsuits That Are Right For You

Whenever there is a swimwear and bikini sale, everyone is hoping to get attention by showing off all the right spots on their body. But, before you go out and buy a suit, you need to find one that will fit you the best in a way that is sexy and not boring. If you do not know what makes a suit interesting and sexy you will not be able to pick the best one.

Remember, you want to make sure you attract the kind of attention you are looking for. If you are an adventurous and daring man you finally have many different choices and they are not just the average pair of swim trunks that come in all the traditional colors.

Not only are there new rules for swimwear for men, the way men view themselves has completely changed. Now there are bikinis and thongs for men. There has been a revolution. But, are these great new suits only for men of one body type? No, they are intended to show all men, no matter their age, that it never hurts to have fun at the beach or next to the pool. If you have never tried one of these before, now is a great time to go right out and get a pair.

beach bikiniIf you are really daring and are a person who loves to show off his physique, why not try one of the y-back thongs designed just for men. These are especially hot and are one of the latest innovations for men. They are usually made of spandex or nylon and they will give terrific support. They also contain some shaping and structuring. You cannot make a mistake when you go out shopping for a thong with block colors that are bold and immediately capture attention. Since the point is to get a lot of attention directed to all the right places, why not make a confident statement with your swim trunks.

Maybe you have been feeling especially excited and playful. If so, you will be able to choose apellonia grey cover upfrom among a collection of rainbow-colored, attention getting ring thongs. These come in several great variation and textures that will grab attention and look simply amazing. If you are thinking about experimenting with your new look and trying something different, give these shapes and patterns a go. You will be able to find them at most shops. Be willing to try something new when you are looking for your new swimwear. If you have doubts, ask someone you can trust or your partner about how it looks on you.

Still popular are the piped and square cut men’s swimsuits and these can be purchased in a terrific variety of designs and cuts. If you are looking for something that is similar but is showy and comfortable you can always try the zippered and the low-rise square cut versions. Zippered suits are a great choice if you want something that is completely different from everything else. If you are looking at mesh swimwear, they are shaped just like regular suits but some parts are made out of a mesh that is tough and made out of the same fiber as the swimsuit.

The Basics Of Bathroom Upgrades

The bathroom is one of the most important parts of the house. Upgrading your bathroom does need to cost a lot. You can change the look of your bathroom without hurting your pocket. Here are some basic things that can help you with your bathroom renovations.
First you have to know your budget. Assess your ability to finance your bathroom renovation. Will you be able to pay for major changes or not? You also don’t have to schedule your renovation immediately. You can save first so that you will have enough money for the remodeling. Do not rush things or you’d end up with a poorly renovated bathroom. Listing down the stuffs that you need, the cost of labor and other expenses will give you an idea of how much money you will have to prepare. You can also consult a contractor and ask for an estimate.
Finding the right contractor is also important in bathroom renovations. To get good offers, it is advisable to shop around. You can also ask your friends and relatives for recommendations. If you know someone who had part of their home renovated and the work done was great, ask them about their contractor. In choosing a contractor, you should also ask for references. This will help you know the quality of his work and the satisfaction rate of his past customers.
In bathroom renovations one of the most important things that you have to consider are the fixtures. Keeping your old floor plan will help you save a lot. As much as possible do not change the location of your toilet, bathtub and sink. This entails less work on the plumbing and less cost too.

Swords Under stairs toilet
Some people choose to change their fixtures because they want fresh and new looking ones. You can look for affordable fixtures on home improvement shops. Look for discounts and sales to save. Remember that not all cheap stuff is of poor quality. You can still score good fixtures at an affordable price. You only have to be patient with your search. You can also consider looking for stuff online. But be sure to deal with credible stores only.
Making a little research will help you on your home renovation. You can search online for bathroom pictures. You can also buy home improvement magazines. They usually have information about the latest bathroom trends, styles and DIY procedures. In addition, you can watch TV programs that feature bathroom renovations. This can give you plenty of ideas that might work for your bathroom. Don’t forget to list down the things that you like, because you can use this in the planning phase.
Light and ventilation are also important in bathroom remodeling. Proper bathroom ventilation will help avoid accumulation of molds and mildew in the bathroom walls. You can consider having a bathroom fan and a humidity sensing unit. Adequate lighting is essential on certain areas of the bathroom, such as the vanity, toilet, shower and medicine cabinet. This ensures the best choice.

Roof Insulation Can Greatly Improve House Energy Efficiency

Unless you have dormer windows on both sides of your roof that extend to the full length of the room, some part of your loft room will have a sloping ceiling that needs insulating. And because headroom space is at a ,
premium on sloping ceilings, the insulation usually has to be fitted between the rafters as opposed to underneath them. This is where the problems start. You can’t simply stuff the gap full of glass-fibre insulation without causing it to sweat and condense water vapour. Or, alternatively, you can ask a spray foam insulation, Dublin provider.
To make the structure breathable and allow water vapour to be cleared, you need to allow an air gap of at least 50 mm to exist and cross-ventilate it over the top of the insulation. Cross-ventilating it means letting the air in at one end and out at the other. There are proprietary vents that can be built in to your roof (if they aren’t there already) to do this and further advice on those can be found under Roof ventilation.
Because of the required air gap and the given depth of the rafters that exist, you are already limited in your choice of insulation material. You will have to meet Building Regulations standards (and they get more stringent all the time), and you will want to make your home as energy-efficient as possible.

spray foam insulation

I say your home and not just your loft room, because a third of the heat from your whole house goes out through the roof and good attic insulation up here will make a difference to your home.
Invariably rafters are only 100 mm deep (standard 50 mm x 100 mm), and thus you have only 50 mm left for insulation thickness – not enough for some insulants to meet the regulations. You may need to deepen the space by fixing timber battens to the underside of them, but these really shouldn’t be deeper than 50 mm themselves.
If you can’t afford to lose the headroom from counter-battening, rigid slab insulants can be fitted in two layers, one between the rafters and one thinner layer beneath them, pinned in position.The plasterboard then has to be fixed through it into the rafters with longer than normal plasterboard screws. There is a limit to this second layer (and it is wise to keep it as thin as possible but still meeting the standards) that has more to do with the length of screws available than anything else.
Because of these logistical problems, insulation to sloping roofs has always received more relaxation to the Building Regulations standards than insulation laid flat within roof voids. Even so, the standards are high and the Government has remained committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from our buildings.
Because of these increasing standards, some of the old-type insulation products are not so useable these days. Glass fibre, for example, relied on depth with plenty of air pockets trapped between the fibres to
insulate, the higher the standards g0 the deeper the insulation needed to meet them. (I didn’t like the stuff anyway, those airborne fibres can be breathed in without a mask, and they irritated my skin like hell.)
Polyurethane foam boards aren’t much better when you’re cutting them – the exposed edges are fibrous and quite sharp, and need treating with a lot of respect. If these boards are being fitted between rafters, a lot of cutting may be needed to ensure a snug fit. With a thermal conductivity value that is much lower than mineral or glass-fibre products, they can be used in much thinner thicknesses to the same result. The measure of any insulation product is its K value (thermal conductivity) which spells out how good it is at stopping heat from passing through it.The lower the K value, the better it is. The numbers are expressions of watts per metre Kelvin, since they are measures of heat over a square metre in a given temperature state and dryness, which means that they are very small numbers basically and not easy to read at a glance.
Rigid polyurethane and phenolic foam (closed-cell) insulation tends to have a K value of between 0.019 and 0.025, much better than that of glass or mineral fibre (open-cell) insulation at between 0.037 and 0.040. Expanded polystyrene (the same product used in packaging) comes in at about 0.037.
These figures are small and the differences between them appear insignificant, but they couldn’t have more of an effect on things than they do. To realise this you have to
understand that you will get the same amount of insulation from 200 mm of glass fibre as 75 mm of polyurethane foam or 25 mm of multi-layer reflective sheeting. These thicknesses are critical in loft conversions – they make the difference between hitting your head and not hitting your head on the ceiling, and can even decide whether or not you go ahead with the project.